Succinimide is a dicarboximide which is a pyrrolidine substituted with oxo groups at the 2 and 5 positions. It is pyrrolidone and dicarboximide.
Succinimides and their derivatives are known to possess various therapeutic activities (Figure 7) [102-105] and are important building blocks in organic synthesis . In 2016, Li/Ge reported a copper-mediated C–H activation strategy for the construction of a succinimide derivative 65 involving carbonylation of an aliphatic amide 1 (Scheme 37) . Here, nitromethane acts as a carbonyl source. The reaction is assisted by 8-aminoquinoline-assisted dehydrogenative coupling of the C(sp3)-H of the amide with nitromethane, followed by a Nef-type reaction to form the succinimide product 65. Related carbonylation reactions of aromatic amides to provide phthalimide derivatives have also demonstrated survival under copper catalysis [107, 108]. The distribution of cyclic imide (succinimide) and cyclic urea (dihydrouracil and dl-5-methylhydantoin) metabolism in microorganisms was studied. 29 In addition to the well-known cyclic urea metabolism, cyclic imide metabolism is also common and widely distributed in bacteria, yeasts and molds. 29 In addition to Blastobacter sp., some bacteria (Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas), Saccharomyces, and molds (Penicillium and Fusarium) are able to grow on cyclic imides as the only carbon source, suggesting that cyclic imide metabolic systems exist in a variety of microorganisms. 29